Saturday, May 23, 2020

Weather and Season Vocabulary in Chinese

Talking about the weather is a great way to start a casual conversation. With these new  vocabulary words, youll be able to ask about the weather and describe seasons in Chinese.  Audio clips  to help with listening comprehension and pronunciation are marked with ââ€" º. Seasons in Chinese As you already know, there are four seasons: spring, summer, autumn, and winter. Lets learn the Mandarin Chinese names for these seasons. First off, we need to learn how to say season: seasonsââ€" ºjà ¬ jià ©Ã¢â‚¬â€¹(trad) Ã¥ ­ £Ã§ ¯â‚¬(simp) Ã¥ ­ £Ã¨Å â€š Lets move on to season names: springæ˜ ¥Ã¥ ¤ © ââ€" ºchÃ… «n tiÄ nsummerÃ¥ ¤ Ã¥ ¤ © ââ€" ºxià   tiÄ nautumnç §â€¹Ã¥ ¤ © ââ€" ºqiÃ… « tiÄ nwinterå† ¬Ã¥ ¤ © ââ€" ºdÃ… ng tiÄ n Weather Vocabulary Now lets get more specific and talk about day-to-day weather. While reading through this vocabulary list, think about how you can apply these new words. What is the weather usually like in ç §â€¹Ã¥ ¤ © (qiÃ… « tiÄ n)? What about  Ã¥ ¤ Ã¥ ¤ © (xià   tiÄ n)? What is the weather like for you today? weather(trad) Ã¥ ¤ ©Ã¦ ° £ / (simp) Ã¥ ¤ ©Ã¦ °â€ ââ€" ºtiÄ n qà ¬goodÃ¥ ¥ ½ ââ€" ºhÇŽosunnyæ™ ´Ã¦Å"â€" ââ€" ºqà ­ng lÇŽngovercast(trad) Ã¥ ¤Å¡Ã©â€º ²/ (simp) Ã¥ ¤Å¡Ã¤ ºâ€˜ ââ€" ºduÃ…  yà ºnrainingä ¸â€¹Ã©â€º ¨ ââ€" ºxià   yÇ”snowingä ¸â€¹Ã©â€º ª ââ€" ºxià   xuÄ›coldå† · ââ€" ºlÄ›nghot(trad) ç† ± /  (simp) çÆ' ­ ââ€" ºrà ¨warmæ º «Ã¦Å¡â€" ââ€" ºwÄ“n nuÇŽncoolæ ¶ ¼Ã§Ë† ½ ââ€" ºlià ¡ng shuÇŽng Sentence Examples About Weather Now that you have a basis in describing the weather, put it to use by incorporating this new vocabulary into a sentence.   Whats the weather like?ââ€" ºtiÄ n qà ¬ zÄ›n me yà  ng?(trad) Ã¥ ¤ ©Ã¦ ° £Ã¦â‚¬Å½Ã© º ¼Ã¦ ¨ £?(simp) Ã¥ ¤ ©Ã¦ °â€Ã¦â‚¬Å½Ã¤ ¹Ë†Ã¦   ·?Its cold.ââ€" ºhÄ›n lÄ›ngÃ¥ ¾Ë†Ã¥â€  ·Its raining.ââ€" ºxià   yÇ”ä ¸â€¹Ã©â€º ¨The weathers not good.ââ€" ºtiÄ n qà ¬ bà ¹ hÇŽo(trad) Ã¥ ¤ ©Ã¦ ° £Ã¤ ¸ Ã¥ ¥ ½(simp) Ã¥ ¤ ©Ã¦ °â€Ã¤ ¸ Ã¥ ¥ ½Its good.ââ€" ºhÄ›n hÇŽoÃ¥ ¾Ë†Ã¥ ¥ ½Its hot.ââ€" ºhÄ›n rà ¨(trad) Ã¥ ¾Ë†Ã§â€  ±(simp) Ã¥ ¾Ë†Ã§Æ' ­

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Essay on Early Life of Nicolaus Copernicus - 846 Words

Many people have had their great contributions to science. Some had the wrong ideas, or their theories were wrong, or maybe they weren’t asking the right questions. Others had some facts right, and some facts wrong. Many of the great minds in science made discoveries that went against the beliefs of the many, which angered people, but their discoveries still had great influence in the science world and their ideas are still used in science today. But even some of the greatest minds of science have made mistakes. I am about to tell you about the contributions and accomplishments of Nicolaus Copernicus, who faced many of the same challenges that many great discoverers faced in earlier times. I am also going to tell you about some of the†¦show more content†¦Many royals, and high-ranking members of the clergy wanted his medical services, be he would have rather helped the poor rather than people of high status. However even though his training wan in medicine, and he wo rked for the powerful Catholic Church at the time, he was still very interested in astronomy and mathematics even though the Church found studying science was a sin, and an offense to god, and the church. Adult Life of Nicolaus Copernicus: Nicolaus Copernicus was interested in science for a while. He read the work of the Ancient Greeks. In 1513, he bought 800 building stones with the intention of building his own observatory. There Nicolaus would do his work as an astronomer, and make history. In the observatory is where Nicolaus would come up with his famous heliocentric model instead of Ptolemy’s geocentric model. This model will come to be known as what we call today, The Solar System. In Nicolaus’ later life, he had written a few books, or texts. Such texts were Commentariolus, which is Latin for â€Å"Little Commentary†. Copernicus wrote Commentariolus in 1514, but finished in 1530. But he never really published it, but he did show it to his friends. Copernicus thought that if he published his work, he knew that to change the model of the geocentric to heliocentric he would not only challenge Aristotle and Ptolemy, but it would also challenge the Christian do ctrine. However his work did get out thereShow MoreRelatedEssay on The Life of Nicolaus Copernicus566 Words   |  3 PagesNicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer. He is famous for his formulation of a heliocentric theory of our galaxy. This theory suggested that the Earth and other planets revolve around the sun, which is in the center of our solar system. This heliocentric model was the opposite of what people had believed before, which was that the sun and other planets revolved around Earth. Copernicus was a genius of his time and had a breakthrough in astronomy. He is known as the initiatorRead MoreBiography Of Nicolaus Copernicus s Discovery Of Heliocentrism Transformed Astronomy1940 Words   |  8 PagesScientific Revolution, philosophical thinkers and scientists discovered new theories, such as gravitational physics laws and other opinions written in books. Nicolaus Copernicus’s discovery of heliocentrism transformed astronomy, his writing s changed the people’s perspective of the universe further challenging the Catholic Church’s beliefs. Before Copernicus, people made scientific discoveries such as Aristarchus of Samos (310-230 BCE), had already identified the sun as the central unit of the solar systemRead MoreThe Renaissance : The Age Of Rebirth1426 Words   |  6 Pagesmusical instrument that resembled a guitar, rice, dyes, perfume, soap, glass mirrors, and the biggest of all idea’s. Some popular people from the Renaissance were Michelangelo, Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Gutenberg, Titian, Dà ¼rer, Vesalius, Copernicus, Cervantes, Shakespeare, Queen Isabella I, and Queen Elizabeth I. Queen Elizabeth I was born September 7, 1533 in Palace of Placentia Queen, Greenwich, England. During the Middle Ages of the Renaissance Elizabeth I was an important person in theRead MoreEssay Copernicus and the Lack of Freedom of Speech Before 17911209 Words   |  5 PagesFreedom of Speech, Assembly, Petition, Press and Freedom of Religion was granted to us on 1791, but what about the time before that? What were people’s rights, did they even have any? Nicolaus Copernicus was one of the many people who lived through the early Reformation. During that time the Catholic Church controlled the people. Anyone who disobeyed the Catholic Church was either put into prison or even sentenced to death. The major concept that the Catholic Church held was the geocentric theoryRead MoreThe Science Of Science Is Not Always Stable, It Is Becoming True And Leaving Behind The Old Ideas848 Words   |  4 Pagesassure correctness is achieved. In the 1400s it was still believed that the Eart h was the center of the universe but, Nicolaus Copernicus an astronomer and mathematician, developed a model in which the sun was the center rather than the Earth. This lead to future findings that in fact it was the Sun and not the Earth in the center. Galileo Galilei, who was influenced by Copernicus, played a major role during the Renaissance s scientific revolution. His findings came during the late 1500s and oneRead MoreEssay about Three Major Factors Of The Renaissance908 Words   |  4 PagesThe word Renaissance means â€Å"rebirth† and it was the response to the brutal hardships of daily life in the middle ages. It was mostly based around humanism, fine arts, and reformation of the Church. Early humanists such as Dante Alighieri, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, and Niccolo Machiavelli wrote books and expressed new ideas about humanism which made everyday life more secular and free willing. The three major factors of the Renaissance that were different from the middle ages were Humanism,Read MoreEvolution Of Science And Religion1179 Words   |  5 Pagesbelieved in a creator there as always been thinkers trying to quantify and evaluate the truth behind religion, trying to disprove or prove a supernatural force. The ancient Greeks were pioneering philosophers which started the great rift we see in the early development of scientific and quantified analysis. This was first started by Aristotle whuch believed that science was a process of trying to understand the natural laws behind creation and that the creation was mathematically perfect and that logicRead MoreStanding On The Shoulders Of Giants999 Words   |  4 Pagesastronomy, anatomy, and medicine. One of the most controversial discoveries of the time was the theory by Nicolaus Copernicus that the earth revolved around the sun, as opposed to the belief of geocentrism that was commonly believed at the time. This idea became to be known as heliocentrism. Unfortunately by the time his book on subject was published, â€Å"de revolutionibus orbium coelstium,† Copernicus was already on his deathbed. The renaissance was also one of the first times scientists began to researchRead MoreGalileo1113 Words   |  5 Pagesfor 2 two years. By the age of ten, Galileo joined his family in Florence and was tutored by Jacopo Borghini. By the age of eleven Galileo was sent off to study in a Jesuit monastery, the Camaldolese Monastery at Vallombrosa. Galileo soon found the life of a monk appealing and considered joining the Monastery. After four years of education in the Monastery he informed his father that he wanted to become a monk, which was not agreed upon by his father who had already decided that Galileo should becomeRead MoreThe Renaissance Period1254 Words   |  6 Pagesoccurred in science and technology as well as others areas. Gun powder was invented around 1040. This later led to the inventions of other destructive devices. Although hard to believe, rockets were launched as fireworks and weapons in China in the early 1230’s. This led to William Congreve developing rockets to use during wars. Also, coming from the invention of gun powder was the gun and other projectile-firing artillery. â€Å"These new inventions greatly affected how war was fought. No more hand-to-hand

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Mice and Men Free Essays

Mice and men How does Steinbeck create tension In chapter 3? Steinbeck creates tension In chapter 3 In numerous ways; he describes the layout and lighting of the rooms which gives the reader Insight Into the setting. He describes the conversations in the bunk house, the noise levels and the noises heard from outside again setting the scene. When Steinbeck sets the scenes he uses imagery as a meaning of description. We will write a custom essay sample on Mice and Men or any similar topic only for you Order Now He uses irony in his language, saying one thing or meaning another. He also goes into detail about the dialogue of the characters and the way they speak to one another. All of which creates tension in the chapter. In the opening sentence of chapter 3 it says ‘Although there was evening brightness showing through the windows of the bunk house, Inside It was dusk’ so this leads me to believe that the bunk house which Is where this chapter Is based, is a dark and damp place giving the reader a cold atmosphere, which Is normal when an author wants to create tension using Imagery. Steinbeck creates tension in the same way later in the chapter, on page 46 ‘it was almost dark outside now’ this shows that it is getting darker outside, so it must be tie late at night, when It’s a dark atmosphere it creates tension as you know if you do go out side you won’t be able to see this puts the person in an alert state and your body and mind on stand by to react to something being out there. A darker atmosphere makes the scene tenser because you don’t know what’s going to happen. This is a dialogue from slim; ‘God almighty that dog stinks. Get him auto here, Candy! I don’t know nothing that stinks so bad as an old dog. ‘ You Imagine the smell of wet fur and how unpleasant that would be In a small space and how It could make you eel annoyed and highlight the tension which Is already In the room. You goat get him out. ‘ Slim keeps on putting pressure to Candy about the dog, Slim keeps on complaining about Candy’s dog because he doesn’t like it. Wynn;t you shoot him, Candy? Carlson is just saying shoot the dog and get rid of him before I shoot him for you. He is annoyed that he has to put up with the smell and states he is saying you have no choice but to get rid of that dog. Carlson is a powerful large man who is insensitive so he always speaks his mind even if he hurts people’s feelings and this is evident in this sentence. He pressures Candy to have the dog shot this would create extra tension which is evident when they are parts of silence In the chapter. The young man turned to the back of the magazine. ‘ This shows that they are switching the view point to something else, It Is a distraction so that Candy forgets about the shooting of the dog. When I read this It makes me feel tense because I want to know what is going to happen so we read it Taste. You Know Tanat tender Is tension In ten room Walt awkward moments AT tension. Peg 75 the tension begins to mount. Words like ‘nervously create this tension as we liaise that Candyâ⠂¬â„¢s dog is going to be killed. This scene is in stark contrast to the previous, the hope of the ranch hands has changed as they turn on Candy’s dog and we feel the sadness this is going to create. Candy ‘hopelessly hands the dog over and in, ‘hopelessly he means that Candy knows there is no point fighting against the decision he has Just got to back down, his character has been dominated by stronger characters and pressured into handing over the dog by the move dominant characters. It goes on to say ‘Anti nothing left for him. Can’t eat, can’t see, can’t even walk without hurting. Carlson is naming things that Candy’s dog has got wrong with him, making up excuses why he wants to kill and get rid of the dog, trying to win round the other characters that he is actually doing the dog a favor. When Carlson and Slim are having a conversation Just before Carlson goes outside and shoots the dog Slim says ‘Take a shovel’ this makes us feel tense because it doesn’t say why Carlson will need a shovel, and what he wants it for. So creating mystery is it need to bury the dog or to kill the dog? Page 51 – ‘His voice trailed off. It was silent outside. Carillon’s footsteps died away. The silence came into the room. And the silence lasted. ‘ In this quote silence or silent is repeated 3 times, this is to make sure we understand that it is silent outside so we can’t hear anything at all, ‘Carillon’s footsteps died away means that Carlson has gone far away to shoot Candy’s dog. The silence also shows how high the tension must be in the bunk house now, the other characters no knowing who to stand by where do their loyalties lie or who is it best to show your sympathy to Carson for as he says Putting the dog out of misery or Candy as he has Just lost his loyal friend for no season other than it smells. Slim said ‘Candy, you can have any one of them pups you want’ Slim is saying forget about your old dog you can have a new one instead to replace, he is trying to break and change the atmosphere in the room because he is scared that Candy will get upset, and react with what people say, and Carlson is not someone who you should stand up to. The silence kept on happening until the end of the chapter this shows that it is silent again, nobody is talking and the atmosphere is tense, no-one wanting to speak in case they say the wrong thing. Candy lay still, staring at the ceiling Candy is staying still and not moving because he is upset, nervous and scared about what has Just happened. After the atmosphere of the shooting and the silence the room then turns to conversations between George and Whit they are discussing Curlers new wife and Delve aggregate to near Ana women Like near won Atlanta themselves so ten tension goes from being scared of what might happen to the dog, then to tension being created in the discussions of women which is quite stereotypical image of women, she will cause fights and tensions with the men in the ranch the tension has gone room annoyance of an old helpless dog to the tension of how a woman can cause tension between men and who think they own her, and whether she deserves what she gets for acting the way she does around them. George sighed â€Å"you give me a good where house every time† he said ‘a guy can go in and get drunk and get everything auto his system all at once’ this is a old fashioned stereotypical comment that women should be used in this way to get things out of there system. A strong character in the group voicing his opinion which may not be the same as others creates nervous tension in the room. A gang or team is formed by the remaining people in the bunk house making a dream plan of their own place, they make a pact not to tell the others so tension is caused as the group are scared to tell in case secrets are told. Curler steps over to Leonie asking What the hell you laughing at? Curlers rage then explodes and he hits Leonie, Leonie tries to get George to help him and covers his face George yells at Leonie to get him which he does. Leonie saying You told me to do that George’ Leonie will only do what George says and George knows this so he can get him to do anything he wants. Steinbeck creates tension in chapter 3 in a number of ways. Firstly he describes the scene and sets the mood by saying it is dark. It is the end of the day and so the men may be tired and irritable. Steinbeck uses language to show that Candy loves his old dog, but then Carlson suggests it should be shot. This is quite a tense moment and Candy is bullied into agreeing and Carlson can kill Candy’s dog. Finally the evening ends in a fight and George badly injures Curler. This atmosphere has been building all night and it does not come as a surprise. How to cite Mice and Men, Papers Mice and Men Free Essays string(152) " that the boss is a â€Å"pretty nice fell† by telling the story of how one Christmas he brought a whole barrel of whisky for everyone to share\." George Is starting to appear as more of the leading character as most of the significant Interactions Involve him due to the fact that Leonie Is told specifically not to speak to anyone unless he has to until he can show that he can work and is a great person to have around the ranch. Leonie – Leonie is beginning to appear as almost a child like character who the reader is brought to feel sorry for due to the fact he needs to be told what to do every time something occurs for example when he goes o drink water George needs to tell him to slow down or otherwise he will get sick. Example from chapter 1 supporting my comments: â€Å"Leonie! † he said sharply. We will write a custom essay sample on Mice and Men or any similar topic only for you Order Now â€Å"Leonie, for God’ sakes don’t drink so much. † Leonie continued to snort Into the pool. The small man leaned over and shook him by the shoulder. Leonie. You goanna be sick Like you was last night† George has always appeared resentful of Leonie from the beginning of the book due to mainly the fact that he was the reason they were forced from weed however there is also slight resent that doesn’t always appear from just the basic need of Leonie which George is always required to take care of however he would never let Leonie know he feels this way. A quote to support this would be: Well, how the hell did she know you Jus’ wanted to feel her dress? She Jerks back and you hold on like it was a mouse. She yells and we got to hide in a irrigation ditch all day with guys looking’ for us, and we got to sneak out in the dark and get auto the country. Leonie carries a dead mouse in his pocket as he Likes to have something to pat and most likely something that could keep him company, this shows the reader that he Is ere child and that we should probably feel sorry for him, as he doesn’t exactly know social protocol and how to act properly. George and Leonie had to leave Weed due to the fact Leonie went up to a lady and felt her dress, she believed he was going to assault her and quickly told everyone that is what he did when really all he wanted to do was feel the fabric, a lynch mob was then formed to capture Leonie and they decided to quickly leave the town. George orders Leonie not to talk when they arrive at the weed so that the owners do not get the wrong impression of them and think they are stupid, instead George ants Leonie to show them how well he can work and then he can talk to them. Itinerant workers Like George and Leonie are the loneliest people In the world because they are always traveling and usually alone so they can never stop to meet George and Leonie both dream of one day owning their own ranch where they can tend to animals like rabbits for George, this is important to both of them as it is what pushes them to continue on and fight for what they believe in. The opening scene of the novella describes the tranquility of the Salinas River; it describes a deep pool arched by the branches of sycamore trees. Read this section closely and discuss the feeling and tone is creates. Why do you think Steinbeck writes so evocatively of this place? Choose THREE sentences or phrases from this opening section and analyses the techniques used by the author and discuss the effect created. Create a vocabulary section at the back of your workbook. Then, find FIVE words to start your list. Write out the word and the definition. Chapter 1 . Choose ONE of the following activities: Look back over Chapter One and find as many references as you can that compare Leonie to an animal. What do you think this means? Make a list of these references and keep adding to it as you read the rest of the chapters. George and Leonie are obviously committed to each other, yet they often criticism each other. Make a list of the negative aspects of their relationship. Explain why you think they stay together in spite of this. Write a character profile of Leonie and George. Describe their physical characteristics, their personalities, hopes, dreams, similarities and difference. Chapter 1 Activity: B) George and Leonie have a lot of negative aspects, most of these are a result of Lien’s actions throughout their travels which often result in trouble for the pair however sometimes it is George who does something that Leonie despises. An example of something George does is trying to control everything Leonie does such as not allowing him to keep a dead mouse even though George is Just doing what is best for Leonie however he doesn’t know that. Leonie is always doing something that antagonizes George or has negative effects towards him, the biggest one being that he was the reason they had to flee from Weed after a woman believed he was trying o assault her. Chapter 2 – Questions The opening passage of chapter 2 really does convey the dullness of the bunkhouse conditions that they were stuck with or how prioritize work was by displaying how no attention was paid to the bunkhouse by the owners to set concentration on work. Steinbeck is trying to convey how dull the building truly is and that people who stay there get hardly any enjoyment but rather are simply there for a paycheck no matter the conditions. George is angered upon entering the house by finding the poison that kills bugs etc. which was put there by Whites, this may be used to introduce him by showing that he was a good morale man (trying to keep bugs away from the house). Candy shows that the boss is a â€Å"pretty nice fell† by telling the story of how one Christmas he brought a whole barrel of whisky for everyone to share. You read "Mice and Men" in category "Papers" We learn he is not a laboring man by the description of his hand, which describes them as bein g without calluses. George tries to speak for Leonie as that is what they decided in the last chapter would happen so that Leonie would not appear stupid to the boss and would not get red. He explains this to the boss by saying he is Just his friend but eventually gives up why he must speak for him and tells him to Just watch him work. â€Å"A guy on a ranch don’t ever listen nor he don’t ask no questions† This quote reveals that no one really cares about each other on the ranch and everything is money driven which Is the sole purpose in people being there. The threat of Curler could be significant to the duo as he may stop them from working at the ranch and ruining any dreams they have and would leave them in a very difficult situation. George is concerned, as he believed they finally found a place to stay and it could be potentially ruined. Candy offers an insight into all of the other characters that live on the ranch and how they interact with everyone. Curlers wife is largely introduced as being a bit of a slut or being easy, Steinbeck infers this by allowing the other characters to describe all the types of men seen around her and how she is only liked because of her looks. After being scared of how George reacted to Curlers wife’s description George try to calm him down by assuring him that he would be safe and nothing would happen to him. Slim is portrayed as being of very high character and almost a lot better than others, weather he believes this as well is unknown however a lot of people both respect and fear him for the power over everyone else he holds. Curler and his wife – The reader is able to gain insight into the relationship, which may craft the experiences George and Leonie face on the ranch due to the couple being so influential and the wife being so controlling meaning Curler could be relationship – We are able to gain more of an insight than we did in previous happens due to there finally being contact with other people, through this we learn just how dependent Leonie really is on George and how that will most likely craft what happens between the pair. Their end goals – We learn of Just truly how much the pairs end goal of owning their own farm pushes them on to go through anything as long as in the end they have each other and their animals. Candy’s relationship with his dog is a lot like George’s relationship with Leonie: they both care for things that other people can’t appreciate. – This shows an insight into tot relationships by Steinbeck comparing the two couples even though they could not be more different, This shows the reader that Candy does care for a of things despite his initial impression while also reaffirming the love George and Leonie have for each other. She slang her pups last night, said Slim. â€Å"Nine fame. I drowned four of ‘me right off. She couldn’t feed that many. – This shows the hardships people have to go through on the farm and how quickly they Just have to get over it Chapter 3 – Questions George says that Leonie will want to sleep in the barn so that he can be with the puppies for as long as possible. O George explains that Leonie was in an accident as a child and is now a bit under developed which is why he travels with him to take care of him as he can not on his own. What happened that made George stop playing dirty tricks on Leonie? George and Leonie had to flee from weed because of Lenses ignorance in thinking that he could go and touch a woman’s dress, she took this as him assaulting her and a lynch mob was soon formed to hunt the pair of Wrongdoers’ I believe Carlson is the one who made the decision to shoot Candy’s dog. The letter holds significance has it shows how truly lonely people who stay on the ranch are from the writer’s personal experience, the fact that he was literate may also be significant. George allows Candy to live with them on the farm due to the money that Candy promised to provide which is about half needed to buy a whole farm. Curler attacks Leonie as he figured out he is very vulnerable and almost child like when really he is a coward. Curler agrees to not get Leonie fired to save himself the embarrassment of being beaten by Leonie who everyone now knows is ‘stupid’. Leonie fears that for hurting Curler George will not let him tend the rabbits on their dream farm as punishment. Chapter 4 – Questions Crooks seems to have a lot more possessions than anyone else on the farm firstly due to Just the length of time he has been there in comparison to everyone else and also he is a cripple so he normally Just stays in his home and keeps possessions to look at. Crooks instinct to not allow Leonie into his room is purely because of the segregation which was still active back then, Leonie did not understand this concept so crooks just did not let him inside. Crooks believes that everyone needs a companion Just so that they can have someone to talk to and trust in their life. Crooks initial response is that he thinks they are Joking because they will never be able to own a farm together however after he realizes they already have some money for the land his attitude changes and he wants to stay with him if it ever does happen. Men are afraid to talk to Curlers wife because someone may then tell Curler who no matter what actually happened will believe anything and probably kick him or her off the farm. Curlers Wife dislikes talking to Curler because he always talked about abusing people and to begin with she never loved him. Candy gives the reason that she liked them now after they don’t believe she will get them fired. Crooks believes that he may soon be off the ranch and therefore can afford to take more risks he also has the backing of Candy, which motivates him. Candy tells Curlers wife that he hears the men coming which makes Candy then want to leave which is what Candy wanted. Quite racist. Chapter 5 – Questions Ellen accidental killed his own puppy by hitting it too hard when it was being subeditor. Curlers wife shares with Leonie that she never liked Curler in the first place and also how she Just wants someone to talk to in a relationship. Curlers wife offers Leonie to caress her hair because she knows he likes soft things and she takes pride in her soft hair. Leonie kills Curlers wife because he thinks that she will scream and get him in trouble, which will result in either Leonie being kicked off the farm, or him not getting to tend to rabbits, the end result is much worse however. George says that Leonie can’t escape and live on his own because he believes that Leonie would not be able to survive on his own Candy’s greatest fear is that their dream of owning a farm will not come true. Slim tells Leonie that if they catch Leonie instead of killing him that he would have to go to prison and that would be worse than death for him, like candy’s dog for example where it was better to die. The men all think that Leonie is armed because Candy’s gun was stolen however it was really George who took it. Carlson plans to shot Leonie right in the guts so that he would tumble over. Candy decides to look after Curlers wife while the others go off searching. How to cite Mice and Men, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

What is a Titration free essay sample

According to Arrhenius, an acid is a substance that produces hydrogen ion (H+) or hydronium ions in water. While, a base is a substance that produces hydroxide ions OH(-) in water.Another scientist â€Å"BRONSTED LOWRY† gave his definition of an acid as â€Å"a substance that acts like proton donor and a base is a substance that acts like a proton acceptor.†Lewis promulgated his acid-base theory as â€Å"acid acts as an electron pair acceptors and a base acts an electron pair donor. These are the various acceptable definition of an acid and a base.A titration is a technique where a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of an unknown solution. Typically, the titrant (the known solution concentration) is added from a burette to a known quantity of the analyte (the unknown solution) until the reaction is complete. By knowing the volume of the known solution that was added allows the determination of the concentration of the unknown to be calculated. We will write a custom essay sample on What is a Titration? or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In the case of this lab report, equivalent point is considered rather color change.An equivalence point is when the moles of a standard solution (titrant) equal the moles of a solution of unknown concentration(analyte). The solution that the concentration is known is called a standard solution. The main product of the reaction between an acid and a base is water, these could be understood by looking at the ionic equation.An ionic equation is a chemical equation where the electrolytes in aqueous are expressed in its dissociated form. Since acid(HCl) and base(NaOH) are electrolytes, the dissolve in water to produce ions.Titration is very important in the medical field because it is use to ensure that patients are given the right concentration of anesthetics before performing major surgeries, it is also used to measure the blood glucose level for those with diabetics. It is also used in food industry to determine saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids. Titration is also essential in automobile industry in measuring the pH of biodiesel.

Wednesday, March 25, 2020

Low attendances are a worry for game in UAE

Introduction There is need for organizations to understand the composition of international marketing to enable managers come up with successful strategies that can work within the global market. Operation of business activities sometimes takes place in complex environments where the businesses face high risks and uncertainties. This calls for necessary knowledge and skills in marketing and business activities that enables effective competition of the firm with others within the market (Doole and Lowe 3).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Low attendances are a worry for game in UAE specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Marketers in sporting events are faced with the challenge of finding out important factors that lure people towards or away from sporting events. High pricing of the tickets is considered one of the major factors affecting match attendance in UAE stadiums. The games receive poor publicity in the media leaving the people with the notion that the tickets might be selling at very high prices. There is almost no advertising of these games and considering also that few people are either interested or play the games. The slow processing and sale of tickets is also one of the contributing factors for lack of motivation towards the games within UAE. Also tight security around the stadiums which sometimes leads to confiscation of spectator items is one of the discouraging incidences contributing to low match attendance (AFP 1). The rate at which people attend matches in stadiums is one of the potential sources of revenues. According to Cunningham and Kwon (139), the factors affecting fan turn out should not only be looked at theoretically but should be reviewed practically. There is the problem of marketing sports in UAE due to complexity in consumer behaviours and communication procedures. United Arab Emirates experiences low attendees in stadiums during matches because the people are cultured towards watching cinemas and visiting shopping malls. The attendance to football games have dropped drastically in the recent times with the number recording few hundreds of spectators per match. The entertainment sectors like cinemas are more popular in UAE than the games. This calls for effort by marketers in designing strategies on how to market football culture within UAE. The passion of football need to be restored back to the culture, this can be done through empowerment of youths, and creation of strong relationship between sports heroes and the fans. Concerning the tight security round and within the stadiums, sports management should provide alternatives to fans, like introduction of open glasses of water to the fans (Rivzi 1). Poor promotion of the domestic leagues makes fans not to be informed about the games and the venue of matches. There is need to adopt other marketing mix elements like communication to replace the traditional free entry to football.Adver tising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Problem Statement This research seeks to answer the question as to why football fans in United Arab Emirates do not attend matches at the stadium. From the sports administration view the sale of match tickets to fans is one of the important ways of raising revenue and also helps in promoting sporting activities within the country. Literature review There are many factors that affect the level of attendance on matches hosted in stadiums. Cunningham and Kwon (127), showed some factors which include the existing relationship between attitude and the reasons of attending a match. There is suggestion that teams should increase the level of interaction between players and fans. It is also important for teams to advertise their historical background which can act as a pulling factor to some fans. It is the responsibility of sports management to identify some of phenomenon that goes with sporting events that may be of interest to the satisfaction of fans needs. UAE football association was established in the year 1971 and has since struggled with the issue of maintaining good fan base. The association has so much focused on sponsorship driven football, where they invite European top team players for the purposes of improving public relations between sports and the people (Madichie 308-318). According to Coughlin and Erekson (180-185), football is one of the most attended games and its contribution acts as the primary determinant of revenue contribution to the sporting department. The ability of converting regular attendee of matches in UAE to season ticket holder and attract more fans depends on a number of factors which include the ability to field winning teams (DeSchriver). This seems tricky on the side of administration since it is not easy to maintain winning team on a yearly basis. The sports games must be made more i nteresting to keep the fans at the level where they long for more of such experiences seasonally. There is also a lot of concern by fans on the physical surroundings of the stadiums and security. According to Bitner (57-71), the physical environment of any sporting stadium matters a lot and determines the level of consumer turn out.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Low attendances are a worry for game in UAE specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The type of services plays important role towards determining the rate at which consumers frequent the any leisure setting. In applying the type of services concept to social settings, Wakefield and Blodgett (66-71), experimented with two Baseball stadia and found out that most of the fans who commented positively on the quality of type of services were most likely to frequent the stadium for future events. This is contrary to those who had negative comments on the st adia services, since they were less likely to be back for future events. Quality services of a stadium are mostly determined by the crowd capacity it can contain comfortably in one match setting. Other factors like team loyalty were found to be one of the factors that affect fans’ desire to frequent games at given stadiums. There are other variables like parking space, spectators control and the quality of food served within the stadium restaurants. This shows that sports arena is one of the major factors that affect the rate of attendance of matches within stadiums and the decision by fans to purchase more tickets in future games. Study on the attendance behaviour during games is considered to be influenced by psychological, economic and social factors. Kelman’s Functional Psychological theory of attitudinal Influence measures the motivational tools that influences match attendance in stadiums. This theory applies some constructs such as sense of obligation and identi fication with the victory (Kahle, Kambara and Rose, 51-60). Then there is the social theory that uses the concept of casual social nature of human being. This stresses the fact that sporting events should be utilized as places for healthy interactions between people of diverse backgrounds. The games should have clear definitions on the nature of fans and the duration of matches. There should also be clear sense of fanaticism for specified events and enough room for socialization. Boundaries are drawn concerning the level of noise from the crowd within the stadium and the level of interactions between players and fans. Restrictions should be made on some negative behaviour like smoking and high ticket prices (Kahle, Kambara and Rose, 51-60). Hypothesis The rate of attendance in any match in UAE stadiums is dependent on the value fans attach to tickets based on the level of quality entertainment brought by the game There is no relationship between the value of the ticket and the qual ity of entertainment that fans attach to games Research methods Telephone surveys were conducted to randomly selected fans who were asked to explain on what motivates them to attend matches. They were also asked on their frequency on game attendance. Research was conducted on some households to ascertain on the influence of community beliefs on certain aspects of games. This revealed that community disapproval of any game affects the general view and attendance towards the game.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Variables related to stadium services such as parking space, security of fans and quality food were examined. The data was finally analysed using SPSS package which showed any relationship that existed between independent and dependent variables. Correlation research was used to determine the level of similarity between dependent and other independent variables (Gall et al). Correlation is the most preferred method since it helps in revealing the factors that determine frequency of attendance of fans to matches hosted within stadiums. The only disadvantage associated with correlation research design is that it gives more descriptive results than those given by use of experimental methods. Results The findings identified several categories of fans, those who were highly involved in sporting activities, those who are significantly involved and those not very concerned about sporting activities. The first category of highly motivated fans considers matches as point of influence from wh ich they can build their sense of importance. This kind of fan enjoys the matches and appreciates the entertainment that goes with it. In this case the marketers can utilize marketing of specific events with detailed information about the teams to attract such like fans. The second group were found to be attracted by the organization and setting of the stadium during the matches. Then the third group of lowly motivated are only attracted to the game leaders or highly rated players. This calls for marketers to consider serious marketing on league leaders, top scorers or highly rated players. Conclusion There is call for sporting managers to strategise on how to build stadiums that are more comfortable for fans. The stadiums should include adequate ventilation space and temperature regulators that make it conducive for interactions. Marketers should focus on how to provide promotions that enable easy interactions between fans and top players and also create spaces that allow the fans to air their views through media. This helps in promoting fan identification which increases the level of enjoyment that accompanies sporting activities within the stadium. There is need to introduce prize draws for attraction purposes. This is where valuable products are presented to winners at sporting events. Though there is still belief that the best way to attract fans is through signing high profile players and involving participation of top continental teams within the sporting events, the use of incentives is still applicable (Rivzi 1). Works Cited AFP. Confusion, apathy explains poor games ticket sales. 2010. https://www.emirates247.com/ 26th October, 2010 Bitner, Mary. â€Å"Type of services: The impact of physical surroundings on customers And employees†. Journal of Marketing, 56 (1992): 57-71. Coughlin, Cletus. Homer, Erekson. â€Å"An Examination of Contributions to Support Intercollegiate Athletics†. Southern Economic Journal 51(1984):180-195. Cunningham Kwon. â€Å"The Theory of Planned Behaviour and Intentions to Attend a Sport Event†. Sport Management Review 6(2003): 127-145 DeSchriver, Timothy. â€Å"Factors affecting spectator attendance at NCAA Division II Football contests†. International Sports Journal, 3(1999):55-65. Doole, Isobel Robin, Lowe. International marketing strategy. South- Western Cengage Learning, London, 2008 Gall, Mark, Wiener, Borg Gall, Cheryl. Educational Research: An introduction (6thed.). White Plains, NY: Longman Publishers USA, 1996. Print Kahle, Lynn, Kambara, Rose. â€Å"A functional model of fan attendance Motivations for college football†. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 5 (1996): 51-60. Madichie, Nnamdi. â€Å"Professional Sports: a new ‘services’ consumption mantra in the United Arab Emirates (UAE)†. The Marketing Review, 9 (2009a): 308-318. Rivzi, Ahmed, 2009, Low attendances are a worry for game in UAE. 2009.  Web. Wakefield Blodgett. â€Å"The import ance of type of services in leisure Service settings†. The Journal of Services Marketing, 8(1994): 66-76. This research paper on Low attendances are a worry for game in UAE was written and submitted by user Aurora Gentry to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Legalization of Marijuana Research Paper Example

Legalization of Marijuana Research Paper Example Legalization of Marijuana Paper Legalization of Marijuana Paper Without his supervision and constant help, this dissertation would not have been possible. Special felicitations to our families, please do accept our cordial thanks for giving your warm encouragement, thoughtful guidance and supporting opinions which really helped us a lot. Last and above all, we praise God, for providing us the opportunity and granting us the capability to proceed successfully for this research paper. List of Tables I. Introduction 1. 1 Background of the study 1. 2 Statement of the problem 1. 3 Significance of the study 1. 4 Scope and Delimitation of the study II. Theoretical and Conceptual Framework 2. 1 Review of related literature 2. 2 Review of related studies 2. 3 Conceptual framework 2. 4 Hypothesis 2. 5 Definition of terms II. Methodology 3. 1 Locale of the Study 3. 2 Sample size 3. 3 Data gathering tools 3. 4 Data gathering procedure IV. Presentation and Analysis of Data V. Conclusion IV- Results and Analysis This chapter will discuss about the results of the data gathering. In the first part of the survey, the respondents are asked about their demographic profile such as name, year and section. For the second part, the respondents here asked in their opinions if marijuana should be legal for medical use, if marijuana should be legalized for recreational use, if the respondents believe that war on drugs has been successful and if the respondents think that government efforts against marijuana should be increased. Lastly, for the third part, they would place marijuana in terms of its negative health effects on the human. Data Collection The people that have done the sunken were the some of the 3rd year students of Infant Jesus Interiors Center. The section involves Ill-Faraday and III- Diaphanous with a total of 22 respondents and 29 respondents each especially having a total population of 51 students as overall respondents. Data Analysis CLCconcede 0area and Section Table 1 . Survey questions and respondents answer. Questions Yes No 37 14 2. 36 3. Should marijuana be legal for medical use? Should marijuana be legalized for recreational use? 15 Do you believe that war on drugs has been successful? 10 41 4. DO you think that government efforts against marijuana should be increased? 21 30 Figure 1 . Percentage of the survey questions about marijuana. Majority of the respondents (15 votes, 29%) places marijuana in less than that f a sugar while the least place the respondents (9 votes, 1 would place marijuana is greater than that of alcohol as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. Percentage of where would the respondents would place their marijuana. List of Figures Figure 1. 1 : Marijuana Leaves Marijuana Cigarette Figure 1. 2 Figure 1. 3 : Intake of Marijuana Experimental use Of Marijuana ABSTRACT Figure 1. 4 : Marijuana use and interpersonal violence are major public health problems. The present review examines the available empirical and theoretical literature on the relationship between marijuana and violence, including past heretical models, the link between marijuana use and interpersonal violence (including intimate partner violence), and the relationship between marijuana withdrawal and violence. While results from laboratory-based studies are inconclusive, results of cross-sectional and longitudinal research provide support for an association be;en marijuana use/withdrawal and various types of violence. Given the lack of empirical support for existing models, a new biophysically model of the marijuana-violence relationship is proposed. Examining methods to test this model and application of current endings to treatment are discussed. This paper will discuss the ethical issues and propose the righteousness of legalizing marijuana on the federal level, as a controlled substance, while taking two stances: (1 ) the benefits of legalizing marijuana far outweigh its risks, and (2) their inconsistencies in current legal policies governing marijuana in relation to more dangerous drugs, such as alcohol. I. INTRODUCTION What are the prevailing issues for and against legalization of marijuana? Just because something is illegal does not mean it is bad; likewise, if something is legal doesnt mean it is not bad. Unlike law which relies on oratory skills to defend an already-defined legal position ethics tries to esoterically determine what is right and wrong regardless of any law that may, or may not, already exist relating to the issue at hand. This paper will propose the righteousness of legalizing marijuana on the federal level as a controlled substance, while taking two Stances: (1) its benefits far outweigh associated risks, and (2) there are Inconsistencies in current legal policies with marijuana in relation to illegal drugs that are more dangerous as well as those that are legal, accepted, and readily available to he public. Specifically, this paper will compare marijuanas benefits and risks against those of the most common legal recreational drug currently in use today, alcohol. This paper will avoid discussing legalization of medical marijuana, as 12 states already allow its use for medicinal purposes, and there are currently over 2000 legitimate marijuana dispensaries across the nation. However, possession and use of marijuana are still illegal under federal law; and federal law trumps state laws every time. Due to the popularity and ongoing widespread, and historical use of marijuana, a new look should be given to its lace in society as a legal recreational drug alongside, or even replacing alcohol and tobacco. In order to fully appreciate marijuanas place in human society, one must first comprehend its prevalence as a medicinal and recreational drug. Marijuana was cultivated as far back as 5000 years ago. In ancient Chinese and Vivid cultures, it treated a wide range of ailments, including malaria and rheumatism (Silver, Ransom, Tillie, 2010). Pre-1 In addition to its recreational properties, hemp a by-product of the marijuana plant was a major cash crop used for clothing, fabric, and medicine. Both George Washington and Thomas Jefferson grew it, and drafts of the Declaration of Independence were written on hemp paper. Hemp production was mandatory and ordered grown for the United Kingdom (Silver et al. , 2010). With the rise of the 1840-1860 literary movement in France, marijuana gained in popularity as an intoxicant of the intellectual classes, due to claims of it stimulating ones imagination and creativity. In the United States, medical interest in marijuana use was evidenced in 1 860 by the convening of the Committee on Cannabis Indict of the Ohio State Medical Society, which ported on its therapeutic applications Schistose of, n. D. ). The Enslaving Years In 1 930, Harry Enslaving headed up the newly-formed Federal Bureau of Narcotics and crusaded to outlaw marijuana. Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act in July 1937 in response to pressure by Enslaving, who feared the use and spread of marijuana specifically by Mexicans (Musts, 1972). Enslaving enlisted the media and movie industries to further stigmatize marijuana. In 1938, the exploitation film Reefer Madness linked the use of marijuana by high school children to hit-and-run accidents, manslaughter, suicide, rape, and descent into madness (Reefer Madness, 2010). Engineers efforts to stigmatize marijuana were so successful that by the 1 asss, public fear of marijuana linked its use to government overthrow as well as to communism, Americas most-feared enemy of the time (Silver et al. , 2010). The New War on Drugs In 1 961 , the Single Convention Narcotic Treaty made production and supply of narcotic drugs an international crime. Nevertheless, marijuana regained its popularity and spawned the hippy subculture of the late sasss, who viewed marijuana as symbolizing Americas freedoms. Furthermore, the Vietnam War introduced marijuana to those who otherwise would not have used it our soldiers in Vietnam (Silver et al. , 2010). In 1 971 , President Richard Nixon declared war on drugs, calling it public enemy number one. He created the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEAD) and took a hard-line stance against drugs (Silver et al. , 2010). A decade later, President Ronald Reggaes administration continued the war on drugs when First Lady Nancy Reagan launched her Just Say No campaign (Silver et al. , 2010). This famous catch phrase soon became a mantra recited by elementary school children throughout the United States. President Bill Clinton vowed to keep up the fight against drugs, but was not as systematic as Reagan or Nixon. Consequently, the Mexican drug cartels became stronger during the Clinton years (Silver et al. , 2010). September 11, 2001 marked a new era in the fight against marijuana. The United States tightened its border policies upon President George Bushs declaration of war on terror. This effectively stifled importation of marijuana from Mexico. Consequently, the Mexican drug cartels turned to growing marijuana within United States borders rather than smuggling it across (Silver 1. Statement of the Problem This research paper seeks to determine the advantages of having marijuana here in the Philippines. Marijuana is the most common illicit drug used in the United States. After a period of decline in the last decade, its use has been increasing among young people since 2007, corresponding to a diminishing perception of the drugs risks that may be associated with increased public debate over the drugs legal status. Although the federal government considers marijuana a Schedule I substance (having no medicinal uses and high risk for abuse), two states have legalized marijuana for adult recreational SE, and 21 states have passed laws allowing its use as a treatment for certain medical conditions. However, in the Philippines, as the law stands today, marijuana is illegal. It is a dangerous drug and the selling/use of marijuana is a criminal offense. Soon it would be completely legal to use marijuana in the Philippines. That is, if Congress passes a proposed bill and President Benign Aquinas sign it into the law. On the matter of the possible legalization of marijuana, the researcher seeks to establish the answers to the following questions: 1 . What is the essence Of legalizing marijuana in the Philippines? . What are the benefits and risks associated with marijuana? 3. What are the effects of marijuana to an individual? 4. What are the prevailing issues for and against legalization of marijuana? 1. Significance of the Study Marijuana came into play with the scarcity of alcohol in the olden days. The use of the drug rose from there, and became a large problem in the Unites States. The united States is one of those countries that can immensely benefit from the legalization of Marijuana use. In the States, Marijuana is the most widely used controlled substance, and since the drug is used so often, why tot brew large amounts of money. Selling the drug and at the same time raising the economy of the county would be the perfect plan for the States to get out of the debt that surrounds them. The dealer of the drug would be closely monitored and would have a mandatory license; the government checking the crops for harmful fertilizers, that could make the customer seriously ill. Legalization of the drug would allow crime to be affected in a positive way. Illegal drug crimes consume police officers time, instead of dealing with larger, more serious problems that affect the county. A marijuana smoker is arrested every 45 seconds in Canada and the United States combined. Many Of these offenders receive small fines, and rarely get time in jail, due to the depleted amount of jail cells throughout the country. Legalizing marijuana would allow jail cells for criminals who have created actual crimes, and save money that is spent in prosecuting to inform the drug users about how to smoke responsibly. Illegal drug dealers would be out of business and drug smuggling would be reduced to an all time low. Many people think only crazy pitheads smoke marijuana, but they are wrong. Last year, about 10 million people smoked marijuana on a regular basis, even though many were true citizens who followed the laws. If the government were to regulate marijuana, they would easily be able to monitor the purchase and sale of the product; reducing drug abuse in the country and making smokers feel safe to smoke. One of the largest factors in legalizing the drug is that marijuana eases pain caused by AIDS, cancer and helps to cure glaucomas. Information from the National Cancer Institute, says that marijuana is good in blocking against nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite with chemotherapy patients. Marijuana can also ease muscle strain associated with multiple sclerosis. If marijuana is the only drug that effectively camouflages pain, there is no other choice but to legalize and use the drug. No person should have a say in this matter unless they have experienced the pain and suffering that the patients with cancer and AIDS have encountered due to their illness. Many people have a stereotypical image of marijuana being a bad, dirty drug, that will make you see delusional, but that is merely what children are told in health class to stay away from drugs, and that is what revolves around adults as well. Over 2000 people die yearly from the toxic effects of Aspirin, which is quite legal, and yet not a single being has died from the effects of marijuana and the substance has been banned. Legalizing marijuana would make a country cleaner, control pain, and smoking would be safer and in government restriction. Legalizing marijuana, is taking one step into making this world a better place to live, in the twentieth century. 1. Scope and Delimitation of the Study II. THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 2. 1 Review of Related Literature Marijuana is formed from the dried leaves and flowering tops of the Indian MME plant Cannabis sati. Popularly known as grass, pot, reefer, and Mary Jane, marijuana is smoked or chewed for its intoxicating effect, and it has also been used as a sedative and analgesic. Hashish is formed from the resin of the flowering tops of the same plant, and it is five to eight times more potent than marijuana when smoked. The flowering tops of the Cannabis plant secrete a sticky resin that contains the active ingredient of marijuana, known as delta-9-dehydrogenations (TECH). The plant has both male and female forms, and the sticky flowers of the female plant are the most potent.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

CPU scheduling Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

CPU scheduling - Essay Example Sometimes people speak of pseudoparallelism in this context, to contrast it with the true hardware parallelism of multiprocessor systems (which have two or more CPUs sharing the same physical memory). Keeping track of multiple, parallel activities is hard for people to do. Therefore, operating system designers over the years have evolved a conceptual model (sequential processes) that makes parallelism easier to deal with. (Tanenbaum, 2006). The difference between a process and a program is subtle, but crucial. An analogy may help make this point clearer. Consider a culinary-minded computer scientist who is baking a birthday cake for his daughter. He has a birthday cake recipe and a kitchen well stocked with the necessary input: flour, eggs, sugar, extract of vanilla, and so on. In this analogy, the recipe is the program (i.e., an algorithm expressed in some suitable notation), the computer scientist is the processor (CPU), and the cake ingredients are the input data. The process is the activity consisting of our baker reading the recipe, fetching the ingredients, and baking the cake. The key idea here is that a process is an activity of some kind. It has a program, input, output, and a state. A single processor may be shared among several processes, with some scheduling algorithm being used to determine when to stop work on one process and service a different one. Operating systems n Creation of a process: Operating systems need some way to make sure all the necessary processes exist. In very simple systems, or in systems designed for running only a single application (e.g., controlling a device in real time), it may be possible to have all the processes that will ever be needed be present when the system comes up. In general-purpose systems, however, some way is needed to create and terminate processes as needed during operation. There are four events that cause process to be created: 1. System initialization 2. Execution of a process creation system call by an existing process. 3. A user request to create a new process. 4. Initiation of a batch job. When an operating system is booted, often several processes are created. Some of these are foreground processes, that is, processes that interact with (human) users and perform work for them. Others are background processes, which are not associated with particular users, but instead have some specific function. For example, a background process may be designed to accept incoming requests for web pages hosted on that machine, waking up when a request arrives to service the request. Processes that stay in the background to handle some activity such as web pages, printing, and so on are called daemons. Large systems commonly have dozens of them. During the running of multiple processes, the processes compete among themselves. When more than one process is in the ready state and there is only one CPU available, the operating system must decide which process to run first. The part of the operating system that makes the choice is called the scheduler; the algorithm it uses is called the scheduling algorithm. Introduction to scheduling: Back in the old days of batch systems with input in the form of card images on a magnetic tape, the scheduling algorithm was simple: just run the next job on the tape. With timesharing systems, the scheduling algorithm became more complex, because there were generally multiple users waiting for service. There